The club was founded in 1845, initially playing its cricket in the Townside district of the town. However, the arrival of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway required the club to seek pastures new. They then located to Foundry Street in the town, but this land was also required for development, with the building of Barlow's Mill in 1852.
Once again the club had to move and found a site at Buckley Wells, currently Bury Grammar School's playing fields, where they stayed until 1922.
In 1919, Samuel Roberts provided land on Radcliffe Road to be used for sporting facilities for the people of Bury following the end of the Great War. It was here that Bury Cricket Club finally settled and this land is now Bury Sports & Social Club where the grounds are used by both the cricket club and Bury Rugby Union Football Club. The club also has a Squash section and Bury Chess Club also use the facilities.
Historically, records of cricket matches at Radcliffe Road can be found right back to the late 1840s including a game in 1888 where Bury took on a side of touring Parsees. The ground has also hosted two Lancashire County Cricket Club 2nd XI matches, the first against Northumberland County Cricket Club in 1908 and the second against Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club 2nd XI in 1953.
In the 1930s the annual tour to North Wales was begun, which still continues to this day. More recently, in 1996, the club went professional, and in recent years has employed first class players from around the world.
As part of the NatWest Bank Cricket Force initiative, Bury CC were nominated for, and won, the Lancashire Cricket Board OSCA (Outstanding Service to Cricket Award) in 2013. This was due to all the work that was put in getting the ground ready for the 2013 season and particularly the finishing work that was done on the new pavilion.
In 2020, the club was due to celebrate it's 175th anniversary, however celebrations were postponed due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Bury were founder members of the Central Lancashire Cricket League (CLL) playing there in the 1892 season. They are the only club, with the exception of Todmorden Cricket Club, to have been members of both the CLL and the Lancashire League where they played in 1893 and 1894.
Despite a long history in the Manchester and District Cricket Association (MDCA) the club had been limited to minor successes with the 2004 lifting of the JC Worthington Trophy by the 2nd XI being the highlight.
However, in the 1990s the club began to develop its junior section which has become one of the largest and most successful in the region. The club's commitment to junior cricket was recognised by the award of the Sport England ClubMark and the Bury Metropolitan Borough Council Community Club of the Year in 2005.
This youth based approach led to more success on the field and, for the first time in their history, the 1st XI won the league in the 2012 season. This was to be Bury's final season in the MDCA as they had applied to, and been accepted as, members of the Bolton & District Cricket Association (BDCA) for the 2013 season.
In 2013, the under 13s won the Cup, beating local rivals Walshaw to pick up the trophy in their debut BDCA season.
In the 2014 season, Bury's 1st XI won their first, and only, BDCA trophy, the knockout Cross Cup, beating Edgworth by 4 wickets.
The club's continued commitment to junior cricket was recognised by its re-accreditation of the Sport England ClubMark in August 2014.
On 25 May 2015 the club informed the BDCA of their intention to resign from the league. When the BDCA confirmed their receipt of the resignation, it was then announced that the club would be applying to join the new GMCL starting in season 2016.
The 3rd XI who had played their cricket in the North Manchester Cricket League (NMCL) also moved into the GMCL after the NMCL voted to join the new league en-bloc.
In 2017, the 1st XI reached the Derek Kay Cup final, losing out to Egerton Cricket Club, in a game played at Greenmount CC.
In 2019, the 3rd XI won the Sunday Premier Cup, defeating Roe Green in the final at Stretford CC. This was the club's first silverware in the GMCL.